Events through history

What was discovered

This is not a complete list but I think it notes the most important achievements since the first telescopic observation of the night sky.

1610

Galileo's first telescopic observation of the night sky: discovery of Jupiter's moons, lunar craters and the phases of Venus.

1813

William Moore's first exposition of the rocket equation based on Newton's third law of motion: Treatise on the Motion of Rockets.

1840

First clear telescopic photograph of another world: the Moon by John William Draper.

1865

"From the Earth to the Moon" is published. Author: Jules Verne.

1898

"War of the Worlds" is published. Author: H.G Wells

1914

Robert H. Goddard files for and is subsequently awarded U.S. patents on multistage and liquid-fueled rockets.

1924

Society for Studies of Interplanetary Travel founded.

1926

Goddard launches the first liquid-fueled rocket.

1927

The Conquest of Interplanetary Space discusses rocket mechanics and orbital effects including the gravitational slingshot.

1931

First German military liquid-fueled rocket engines developed.



1935

The Explorer II balloon takes two people to 22,066 metres (72,395 ft), where they observe and photograph the curvature of the Earth.

1944

V-2 Rocket (MW 18014): First man-made object to cross what would later be defined as the Kármán line and hence first spaceflight in history.

1946

First pictures of Earth from 105 km (65 mi).

1947

First animals in space (fruit flies).

1951

First dogs in space (Dezik and Tsygan).

1957

First intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). First artificial satellite First signals from space. First animal in orbit, the dog Laika.

1958

Confirmed the existence of the Van Allen belts.

1959

First firing of a rocket in Earth orbit First reaching Earth escape velocity or Trans Lunar Injection First detection of solar wind. First artificial satellite to reach the Moon vicinity and first artificial satellite in heliocentric orbit. First photograph of Earth from orbit. First impact into another world (the Moon) First delivery of national (USSR) pennants to a celestial body. First photos of another world from space: The far side of the Moon.

1960

First solar probe.

1961

First Hominidae in space, first tasks performed in space; Ham (chimpanzee). First human-piloted space flight (Alan Shepard) First human-crewed suborbital flight First human space mission that landed with pilot still in spacecraft, thus the first complete human spaceflight by FAI definitions.

1963

First woman in space (Valentina Tereshkova).

1965

First Mars flyby (closest approach 9,846 kilometers; returned pictures) by Mariner 4.

1966

First soft landing on another world (the Moon) by Luna 9.

1968

First piloted orbital mission of another celestial body (Moon), First-ever Trans-Earth injection First human space mission to escape Earth's influence (25 December).



1969

First human on the Moon, and first space launch from a celestial body other than the Earth First sample return from the Moon. First photograph of Phobos from Space.

1970

First lunar rover.

1971

First space station

1972

Pioneer 10:  First human made object sent on escape trajectory away from the Sun.

1973

First Jupiter flyby (at 130,000 km).

1974

Venus flyby at 5768 kilometers, first gravitational assist manoeuvre. First photograph of Venus from Space

1975

First orbit around Venus.

1976

Closest flyby of the Sun (43.432 million kilometers) Maximum speed record among spacecraft (252,792 km/h).

1979

Jupiter flyby (closest approach 349,000 km) encounters with Five Jovian moons, discovery of volcanism on Io.

1981

First Reusable manned spacecraft (orbital). STS-1

1983

First spacecraft beyond the orbit of Neptune (first spacecraft to pass beyond all Solar System planets).



1984

First untethered spacewalk, Bruce McCandless II.  STS-41-B.

1986 (Jan)

First Uranus flyby (closest approach 81,500 kilometers (44,000 nmi). Voyager 2.

1986 (Jan)

Challenger explosion with Christa McAuliffe (teacher at high school in Concord, New Hampshire).  STS-51-L

1986 (Feb)

First consistently inhabited long-term research space station. MIR.

1989

First Neptune flyby (closest approach at 29,240 km).

1990

First photograph of the whole Solar System. Voyager 1.

1991

First asteroid flyby (951 Gaspra closest approach 1,600 kilometers).

1992

First polar orbit around the Sun.

1995

Record longest duration spaceflight (437.7 days) set by Valeri Polyakov.

1997

First operational rover on another planet (Mars). Mars Pathfinder.

1998

First multinational space station, Largest man-made object built in space to date. ISS.

2000

First orbiting of an asteroid (433 Eros).

2001

First landing on an asteroid (433 Eros).

2003

Columbia explodes on re-entry to the atmosphere.

2005

First soft landing on Titan.

2009

Kepler Mission is launched, first space telescope designated to search for Earth-like exoplanets.

2011

First orbit of Mercury.

2014

First man-made probe to make a planned and soft landing on a comet (67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko).

2015

First orbit of dwarf planet (Ceres). First spacecraft to orbit two separate celestial bodies.

2016

Astronaut Scott Kelly and Cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko return to Earth after their 340-day space mission, longest recorded time in space for ISS crew members.

I Will add more to this list very soon.....

Some more Facts